Vitalik Buterin, the founder of Ethereum proposed a solution to build a ultra secure blockchain. Commenting on the classic debate of optimistic cumulations versus ZK cumulations, Buterin proposed a hybrid model that can get the best of both worlds.
The debate between rollups
Rollups are layer 2 solutions that aim to improve the scalability of a blockchain. Rollups can combine a set of transactions into one and publish the final state. Currently, at its best, Ethereum can handle around 20-30 TPS. Rollups can improve transaction speed multiple times.
There are two main types of rollups: optimistic rollups and ZK rollups. Optimistic aggregations have a pessimistic nature that considers all transactions to be correct until proven otherwise. They bundle all transactions into one without verifying their authenticity. Then they give anyone a deadline to challenge the authenticity. On the other hand, ZK rollups verify the authenticity of each transaction.
Although ZK proofs are more secure, they are often expensive to generate. Vitalik Buterin tries to solve this problem.
Plan proposed by Vitalik
Buterin’s plan takes the best of both worlds. He proposed to build a rollup that would combine bullish rollups and ZK rollups. According to his plan, a blockchain would publish a block. Then the channel would wait 24 hours to submit a challenge. If there is no block challenge, then a ZK-SNARK, which is a ZK evidence type, will be released.
If there is a challenge to the authenticity of a transaction, the decision will be made by consulting between optimistic accumulation, zero-knowledge accumulation and global blockchain governance. Any dispute between the optimistic rollup and the ZK rollup will be resolved by governance.
Rollups are currently a very hot topic in the Ethereum ecosystem. Polygon has just launched a zero-knowledge-based EVM that would be compatible with any smart contract that is also compatible with the Ethereum mainnet. Following Polygon’s announcement, Matter Labs And Scroll also announced their zkEVMs.
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